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공개·회원 8명

Pthreads Programming O'reilly Pdf 28 !!EXCLUSIVE!!

The most common programming model for high-performance cluster systems is message-passing. MPI [10] is established as a de-facto standard for message-passing as it is based on the consensus of more than 40 participating organizations, including vendors, researchers, software library developers, and users. MPI provides a portable, efficient, and flexible standard for message-passing. Note that it is only a definition of an interface, that has been implemented by several developers for different architectures. Nowadays there exist several implementations whose routines or functions can be directly called from C, C++, Fortran or Java code.

Pthreads Programming O'reilly Pdf 28

W3Techs reports that, as of January 2023[update], "PHP is used by 77.8% of all the websites whose server-side programming language we know."[18] It also reports that only 8% of PHP users use the currently supported 8.x versions. Most use unsupported PHP 7, more specifically 7.4, and even PHP 5 has 23% of the use, also not supported with security updates, known to have serious security vulnerabilities.

Early PHP was not intended to be a new programming language, and grew organically, with Lerdorf noting in retrospect: "I don't know how to stop it, there was never any intent to write a programming language [...] I have absolutely no idea how to write a programming language, I just kept adding the next logical step on the way."[23] A development team began to form and, after months of work and beta testing, officially released PHP/FI 2 in November 1997.

On 1 July 2004, PHP 5 was released, powered by the new Zend Engine II.[10] PHP 5 included new features such as improved support for object-oriented programming, the PHP Data Objects (PDO) extension (which defines a lightweight and consistent interface for accessing databases), and numerous performance enhancements.[31] In 2008, PHP 5 became the only stable version under development. Late static binding had been missing from previous versions of PHP, and was added in version 5.3.[32][33]

PHP is loosely typed. It stores integers in a platform-dependent range, either as a 32, 64 or 128-bit signed integer equivalent to the C-language long type. Unsigned integers are converted to signed values in certain situations, which is different behavior to many other programming languages.[203] Integer variables can be assigned using decimal (positive and negative), octal, hexadecimal, and binary notations.

Basic object-oriented programming functionality was added in PHP 3 and improved in PHP 4.[10] This allowed for PHP to gain further abstraction, making creative tasks easier for programmers using the language. Object handling was completely rewritten for PHP 5, expanding the feature set and enhancing performance.[213] In previous versions of PHP, objects were handled like value types.[213] The drawback of this method was that code had to make heavy use of PHP's "reference" variables if it wanted to modify an object it was passed rather than creating a copy of it. In the new approach, objects are referenced by handle, and not by value.

Some other projects, such as Zephir, provide the ability for PHP extensions to be created in a high-level language and compiled into native PHP extensions. Such an approach, instead of writing PHP extensions directly in C, simplifies the development of extensions and reduces the time required for programming and testing.[237]

When using PHP for command-line scripting, a PHP command-line interface (CLI) executable is needed. PHP supports a CLI server application programming interface (SAPI) since PHP 4.3.0.[244] The main focus of this SAPI is developing shell applications using PHP. There are quite a few differences between the CLI SAPI and other SAPIs, although they do share many of the same behaviors.[245]

As of March 2021[update], PHP was used as the server-side programming language on 79.1% of websites, down from 83.5% previously, where the language could be determined, and PHP 7 is the most used version of the language with 50.3% of all websites on the web using that version.[281]


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